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                         QUICK START LOJBAN
[what is Lojban omitted]

This booklet copyright 1990 by The Logical Language Group, Inc. 2904
Beau Lane, Fairfax, Va.  USA 22031-1303 (703) 385-0273

... [omitted]
                       LOJBAN NAMES (CMENE)

Cmene always end in a consonant.  They are the only Lojban words that
end in a consonant.  They are always followed by a pause, indicated in
print by a period.  They may not include the syllables la, lai, or doi
within them.  They are often preceded by la ("the one named") or doi
("O", or "Hey", indicating direct address.)  They are usually not

     Lojbanized form          for

     .adolf. xitlr.           Adolf Hitler
     crlak. xolmz.            Sherlock Holmes
     maRIS. .antuaNET.        Marie Antoinette
     .uinstn. tcrtcil.        Winston Churchill
     .eibry'em. linkyn.       Abraham Lincoln
     mixeil. gorbatcof.       Mikhail Gorbachev
     .aizek. .ezimov.         Isaac Asimov
     .arnld. cuartzynegr.     Arnold Schwartznegger
     djanis. djaplin.         Janis Joplin
     meris. tailr. mor.       Mary Tyler Moore
     djan. .endrsn.           John Anderson
     .eduard. KEnydis.        Edward Kennedy
     .ilizabet. djordn.       Elizabeth Jordan
     djiordj. buc.            George Bush
     ranld. reigyn.           Ronald Reagan
     ritcrd. niksn.           Richard Nixon
     djimis. kartr.           Jimmy Carter
     lindn. djansn.           Lyndon Johnson
     frenkln. ROsevelt.       Franklin Roosevelt
     KEnadas.                 Canada
     MExikos.                 Mexico
     nuiork.                  New York
     pakipsis.                Poughkeepsie
     xainrix. ximlr.          Heinrich Himmler
     don. ki'otes.            Don Quixote
     sfietlonys.              Svetlana
     xrucTCOF.                Khrushchev
     .iulius. tsezar.         Julius Caesar
     margret. maglaxln.       Margaret McLaughlin
     rut. RItcardsan.         Ruth Richardson
     dorytis. tampsn.         Dorothy Thompson

To Lojbanize a name:  eliminate double consonants and silent letters.
Convert all sounds to their closest Lojban equivalent.  If the name ends
in a vowel, add some consonant that sounds good.  If the stress is not
on the next-to-last syllable, capitalize the one stressed.  If la, lai,
or doi appear, substitute something like ly, ly'i, or do'i,

                   GRAMMAR- THE BIG PICTURE

A lot of Lojban will look strange, and familiar things will be done in
strange ways.  It is a lot simpler than it looks at first.  The
strangeness comes partly from building the grammar around formal logic,
and partly from making the accomodations needed so that present-day
computers could take dictation, transcribe, parse, and translate it

English sentences are made of subjects, verbs, objects, etc.  Lojban
sentences (bridi) are made of selbri and sumti.

Some vocabulary-
bridi     x1 is a lojban predicate with meaning x2 and
             arguments x3  ("sentence")
selbri    the central predicate-word (brivla) of the sentence
cu        indicates (if necessary) that the selbri follows
sumti     x1 is an argument of predicate/function x2
cmene     x1 is the name of x2 to/used by x3
cmavo     "little word", grammatical structure word
brivla    "bridi-valsi", predicate-word
"elide"   English word meaning "to leave out"
vau       indicates (if necessary) that there are no more sumti
          for this selbri. (usually elided.)

Lojban uses the meaning of "predicate" from formal logic:  a predicate
is a set of arguments (x1, x2, x3, and so forth) and the relationship
between them, taken as a unit.

Selbri and sumti are in turn made of brivla, cmavo, and cmene,
(predicate-words, structure words, and names) which are the ultimate
"parts of speech" in Lojban.

Many grammatical structures in Lojban have opening markers, and
corresponding closing markers called terminators.  The terminators are
available if necessary to make clear where one structure ends and
another begins.  Usually there are other ways of determining this, so
terminators more often than not may be left out, or elided.  Sometimes I
will show an elidable word in brackets.  More on this later.

Basic structure of utterance:
     sentence .i sentence .i sentence .i sentence
     ni'o sentence .i sentence .i sentence .i sentence .i sentence
     ni'o sentence .i sentence .i sentence

".i" indicates the start of a new sentence.  "ni'o" indicates the start
of a new topic or paragraph.  "fa'o" indicates end of message.  "fa'o"
may usually be elided.

Basic structure of sentence:  at least one sumti before the selbri.

     sumti sumti ... sumti [cu] selbri sumti sumti...[vau]

ctuca     x1 teaches audience x2 ideas/methods x3 about subject x4
          by doing/being x5
tavla     x1 talks/speaks to x2 about x3
kurji     x1 takes care of x2, x1 is a caretaker of x2

e.g. mi    [cu] ctuca  do      ta    [vau]
     x1         selbri x2      x3
     teacher  to-teach student ideas/methods
     I        teach    you     that.

or:  mi'o  [cu] tavla  le ctuca [ku]  ko'a  [vau]
     x1         selbri x2             x3
     speaker to-talk  spoken-to       about subject
     (You & me) talk to the teacher   about it.

or:              ?xu mi do    ctuca  ta
                     x1 x2    selbri x3
     Is it true that I to you teach that?

or:  le ctuca cu kurji       le tavla
     x1        selbri        x2
     caretaker takes care of the one taken care of
     The teacher takes care of the talker.

or:  do ?ma kurji
     x1  x2 selbri
     You take care of what?

or:  mi'o ?mo le ctuca
     x1  selbri x2
     You and I do what with the teacher?

Again, Lojban sentences are made of selbri and sumti.

Selbri may be of several types, including the following:
      Gismu are 5-letter predicates. (We have about 1,360.)
      Lujvo are shortened, compound gismu. (Potentially millions.)
      La'evla are lojbanized words borrowed from other languages.
      ?mo is the "question selbri", which may be used anywhere
          that a selbri might. "Please fill in this blank."
      Se brivla are "converted predicates", of which more soon.
      Tanru are multiple brivla, of which even more later.

Sumti may include:
     "Pronoun" sumti, pro-sumti: mi, do, mi'o, ti, ta, tu, (etc.)
     lerfu, "letters", serving as pro-sumti: .abu, by, cy, (etc.)
     descriptions and names: le brivla [ku], la cmene [ku]
     zo'e   "something unspecified", placeholder
     ?ma     Question sumti, "Please fill in this blank."
     sumti clauses, (very useful), of which more eventually.

Lots of new words are to be expected, with a new language.  Two pages of
vocabulary next, in one big chunk; then piece by piece, with examples.

                    TWO PAGES OF VOCABULARY


klama     x1 comes/goes to x2 from x3 via route x4 using x5
               x1 is the traveler
               x2 is the destination
               x3 is the starting point
               x4 is the route
               x5 is the means of transportation
e.g. la vlad. drakulas. cu klama la lndn. la translvanias. le
     x1                   selbri x2       x3               x4
xamsi le bloti [vau]
     Vlad Dracula comes to London from Transylvania over the sea
     by boat.

cliva     x1 leaves/goes away from x2 via route x3 using x4
     Obviously "cliva" is close to "klama" in meaning, but not the
     same, as they have different place structures.
e.g  la vlad. cu cliva la translvanias. le xamsi [zo'e] [vau]
     x1         selbri x2               x3       x4
     Vlad leaves Transylvania by sea.

English has place structures too.  "John gives Sam the stake" has a
different meaning than "Sam gives John the stake".  The change in
position results in a change in meaning.  We don't usually think of
them, as we have many other ways to indicate what relationships hold
between words.  Lojban has these, too; we'll get to them later.

Usually, counting the sumti from the front of the sentence gives you the
places of the sumti.  But sometimes we want to skip some, or put them in
a different order.  "fa" is a tag indicating that what follows is the
first-place (x1) sumti of the bridi.  "fe, fi, fo, fu" indicate the x2,
x3, x4, and x5 sumti, repectively.

dunda     x1 gives x2 to x3
tcidu     x1 reads x2 from medium/document x3
cusku     x1 expresses/says x2 to x3 in form/media x4
preti     x1 is a question/query about x2 by x3 to x4

<<lu la drakulas. klama fu ?ma li'u>> preti fi la van. xelsin.
  (  x1          selbri x5      )=x1  selbri x3
"Dracula is coming how?" asks Van Helsing.

.i le ninmu goi ko'a cu tcidu zo'e le krili bolci
The woman reads (something unspecified) from the crystal sphere.

.i ko'a cusku <<lu le ciblu pinxe cu klama fu le bloti li'u>>
   x1  selbri x2=( x1               selbri x5          )
The woman says "The blood-drinker comes by boat."

If one of these tags is used, any untagged sumti following are
assumed to count from the tag.  e.g.  "di'u preti fi mi do", "That
(the previous sentence) is a question by me to you."
               CONVERTED BRIDI- SE, TE, VE, XE

se   exchanges 1st and 2nd sumti of the bridi
te       "     1st and 3rd   "    "  "    "
ve       "     1st and 4th   "    "  "    "
xe       "     1st and 5th   "    "  "    "
se, te, ve, xe are called "conversion operators". The effect is a
lot like "passive voice" in English.

la van. xelsin. te preti fa <<lu ?ma xe klama fa la vlad. li'u>>
x3               selbri  x1=(     x5  selbri  x1          )
Van Helsing asks "How comes Vlad?"

.i <<lu ri klama fu le bloti li'u>> se cusku le krili bolci tcidu
     ( x1 selbri x5         )=x2      selbri x1
"He comes by boat", says the crystal-ball-reader. (Notice that
here the "ri" refers to the last sumti in the "quoted world".)

lasna     x1 fastens/connects/attaches x2 to x3 with x4
se lasna  x2 is fastened by x1 to x3 with x4
te lasna  to x3 is fastened x2 by x1 with x4
ve lasna  with x4 is fastened x2 to x3 by x1

le lasna       the one who fastens
le se lasna    the "fastenee"
le te lasna    the thing fastened to
le ve lasna    the means of fastening

cfari     x1 initiates/starts x2 from prior state x3
tagji     x1 is tight on/in x2 at locus x3

le skori ku ve lasna le nanmu le ckana le nixli
x4            selbri x2       x3       x1
With the rope is fastened the man, to the bed, by the girl.

("ku" is the closing marker for "le".  Why is "ku" needed here, if
before it was always elided?  Because if we wrote "skori ve lasna" the
dumb computer parser would think we were making a compound bridi, a
tanru- see below.  We need a clear ending to the x1 sumti before the
selbri can begin.  I've been using "cu" to do this in the earlier
examples, and I choose to use "ku" here.)

.i ri cmila le se lasna      .i ri se tagji le ve lasna
   x1 selbri x2                 x2   selbri x1
She laughs at the bound one. On him are tight the bonds.

.i le cinse te venfu ku se cfari   The sexual revenge is begun.
   x2                    selbri

gasnu     x1 does x2 to/with x3
dukse     x1 is an excess of x2 by standard x3
bapli     x1 forces/compels x2 to do/be x3 by means x4
nitcu     x1 needs x2 for purpose x3 under conditions x4
cpacu     x1 gets/acquires x2 from x3 for purpose x4

zukte     x1 takes action x2 with purpose/goal x3
frati     x1 reacts/responds with x2 to x3 under conditions x4
jmina     x1 adds/combines x2 to x3 with result x4
xenru     x1 regrets/rues x2
cpedu     x1 requests/asks x2 of/from x3 in manner x4

spuda     x1 replies to x2 with response x3
pikci     x1 begs/pleads/supplicates x2 for x3
xrani     x1 injures/harms/damages x2 at/in x3 by means x4
snuti     x1 is accidental/unintentional on the part of x2
culno     x1 is full with x2

banzu     x1 suffices for x2 under conditions x3
djica     x1 desires/wants x2 for x3
fraxu     x1 forgives x2 for doing/being x3
dirba     x1 is dear/precious/emotionally valued to x2
ckini     x1 is related to x2 by relation x3

This might be called the "quick and dirty" way to teach vocabulary.
(Sorry about that.)  These are examples of gismu, 5- letter predicates
that are the root words of the language.  To make sentences, you "fill
in the blanks" (x1, x2, etc.) with names, descriptions, pro-sumti,
placeholders, questions, or clauses.